Understand Young-Onset Dementia – Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Dementia is a term that refers to a set of symptoms that impact a person’s memory, reasoning, and social abilities to the point where it interferes with their regular activities. It also affects behaviour, feelings, and relationships with others. Dementia isn’t caused by a single specific disease, but it can be caused by a number of them. Memory loss is a common symptom, however, isn’t always a mark of dementia, but it is generally one of the first symptoms.
Dementia is a serious public health problem that is becoming more prevalent today. The great prevalence of dementia in the elderly, on the other hand, may overshadow the significance of its occurrence in younger people. This is termed Young-onset dementia or in other words ‘dementia at a young age’. Follow through the blog to get more information on causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of young-onset dementia.

What is Young-Onset Dementia?

When symptoms of dementia appear before the age of 65, usually between the ages of 30 and 65, it is referred to as ‘young onset dementia.’ It’s also known as ‘early onset’ or ‘working age’ dementia, but both words are sometimes used interchangeably. Young early-onset dementia means the beginning stages of dementia, while ‘working age’ is becoming less defined as retirement ages became more flexible.

The young-onset dementia age is between 30-65 years, and the youngest dementia age or the youngest age of dementia could be 31 years. (An example of younger onset dementia – Becky Barletta who was diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia at the young age of 31 years).

Early signs of young-onset dementia are not often recognized and may be attributed to other factors such as depression, stress, menopause, physical health difficulties, and relationship challenges, as dementia is frequently and incorrectly linked with old age. This can cause a substantial delay in receiving an accurate diagnosis and necessary care (on average four years). This can have a detrimental impact not only on the life of the person with dementia but also on the lives of their entire family.

What are the Causes of Young-onset Dementia?

Dementia is caused by damage to the brain. There could be many causes associated with it like:

The causes of young-onset dementia are similar to the ones in older people. However, some causes, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are more common in children and young adults. The causes of younger onset dementia include:

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of young-onset dementia, affecting one out of every three people under the age of 65. Proteins clump together in the brain to produce ‘plaques’ and ‘tangles,’ due to which the brain cells die, affecting its functions. Memory loss is less likely to be the first symptom of young-onset Alzheimer’s disease.

Atypical Alzheimer’s disease

An ‘atypical’ form of Alzheimer’s disease is far more common in younger people. The young onsets Alzheimer’s symptoms include:
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) – Problem with understanding visual information
Logopenic aphasia – Difficulty with language, speaking, and long pauses when they speak
Dysexecutive Alzheimer’s disease – Difficulty in decision making, and socially inappropriate behaviour.

Familial Alzheimer’s disease

Familial Alzheimer’s disease is a type of Alzheimer’s disease that is extremely rare. It is caused by the genetic mutations that run in the family. The youngest age you can get Alzheimer’s is in the ’30s, ’40s, and 50’s. The condition is more likely to be inherited if the symptoms appear early. The youngest age for Alzheimer’s disease is 23 (as evident from a case in Britain).

What are the Symptoms of Young-onset Dementia?

Memory loss may not be one of the first signs of young-onset dementia. Symptoms vary from person to person depending on the type of dementia they have and the regions of the brain they are affected by.

Therefore, the young-onset dementia symptoms may include changes in:

  • Personality
  • Behavior
  • Language
  • Social Functioning
  • Relationships with others
  • Everyday activities
  • Motivation
  • Moods
  • Concentration
  • Decision Making and Problem-solving
  • Vision and Spatial Awareness

These are the signs of Dementia at a young age. Furthermore, the person may not recognize the changes or be hesitant to acknowledge that something is wrong while they are generally healthy, delaying their visit to the doctor.

What do you need to do for Young-onset Dementia?

The family and individuals need to follow through with the following during the problem of dementia:

Early recognition of signs and symptoms

  • Access to the professional helpline
  • Accurate and timely diagnosis
  • Emotional support and counseling
  • Professional advice at the time of diagnosis
  • Age-appropriate information
  • Peer support groups etc.

Early detection and precise diagnosis of dementia, together with appropriate specialized assistance, can help people with young-onset dementia and their families feel less distressed.
It is a good idea to schedule an appointment with a doctor if you have any doubts. Seeing a doctor early on can help to alleviate anxiety and provide answers.

How to Prevent/Treat Dementia?

There is no proper cure for dementia so far. There are, however, remedies and support services available to those suffering from the illness. Drug and non-drug treatments, as well as support, activities, information, and advice, are all easily and readily available for the patients.

There are also non-drug treatments that can be used. Counselling may assist some younger people with dementia with their diagnosis. These sessions can help in coping up with the behavioural changes that a person may face during young-onset dementia. Healthcare practitioners have been successful in assisting patients in maintaining cognitive health, controlling behaviour, and slowing down the progression of the disease. Other things include staying physically active, eating a well-balanced diet, abstaining from smoking, and drinking alcohol in moderation.

Conclusion

The key element in the treatment of young-onset dementia is support. Connecting with support groups can help you find information, acquire a better knowledge of your disease, and learn how to adapt. Always remember that you’re not alone. Support options may differ depending on where you live, but you can always find it whenever you need it. In the early stages make sure that you and your family learn and adapt to the situation and find needful ways to cope with it. With good resources and support the disease is not that big a threat.

7 reasons why you should have a medical checkup on a regular basis?

A few years back, people would seek treatment or consult a doctor only when they were sick. But now, as people become more educated and empowered about their own health, they acknowledge the importance of regular health check-ups. They want to keep a healthy diet, weight, and level of physical activity to reduce their risk of developing certain illnesses or diseases.

Even doctors advise that people should get frequent medical check-ups to maintain their health. Simply going to the doctor for a regular check-up can ensure that you are getting screened and diagnosed for diseases. These examinations could be done quarterly, twice a year, or once a year. These tests can aid in the detection of any potential illnesses or diseases to which you may be vulnerable. Regular check-ups can help you improve your chances of receiving treatment and finding a cure more quickly.

Early detection increases your chances of receiving the best therapy possible and avoiding health-related problems. You’re taking critical steps toward living a longer, healthier life by getting the right health service and treatment.
Do Healthy People Require Full-Body Checkups? As strange as it may sound, everyone, no matter how healthy they are, requires regular health check-ups, to maintain proper health. A full-body checkup, according to medical professionals, is required for everyone, regardless of age or fitness level.

Why you should have a Medical Checkup?

Lower Healthcare costs

Even the best of us shiver at the prospect of a hefty medical bill. It is critical to arrange a regular health screening if one wishes to reduce their accumulated healthcare expenses. It is better to spend a penny and detect the problem early than to pay heavy bills at the time of treatment when it’s too late.

This particular habit of healthcare checkups saves money in the long run. This is because frequent health examinations reduce the risk of developing potentially hazardous health conditions in the future. It can also, in some situations, help to lower the risks of surgery and prevent you from bearing other major medical expenses.

Easier to control the disease at budding stages

Regular medical check-ups helps the doctors in diagnosing any serious disease or condition before it progresses to a more severe stage. These tests are carried out based on a person’s age, sex, medical history, and lifestyle choices. This ensures that an individual is completely tested based on all grounds.

If any problem is detected, doctors even recommend further texts and screening to get to the crux of the problem. So that it could be handled and taken care of at an early stage. These tests can detect diseases earlier, making the treatment procedure easier and thoroughly revised.

Identifies Stress-Related Diseases

We live in a world that moves at breakneck speed, with stressful job schedules and lifestyles. Some of the diseases or ailments in the human body are triggered by stress levels. An increase in stress and anxiety is directly linked to a variety of disorders, on both medical and psychological levels.

Hypertension, high blood pressure, weight gain, mental disorders, Alzheimer’s, depression, asthma, and even gastrointestinal issues are a few examples of the disease associated with stress and anxiety. Regular medical examinations make it easier to diagnose and recognize these issues before they become too serious. Regular check-ups can ensure that you receive the advice and assistance you require from your doctor in order to help you avoid the negative effects of a high-stress lifestyle which even helps in dealing with your mental health issues.

Keeps You Updated About Your Health

Your test results will provide your doctor with all the information they require about your health. They may warn you about any problem and/or offer to advise on how to best maintain your health, depending on your situation. When a problem is recognized early on, it can be treated with minor efforts and issues. If, on the other hand, the illness is discovered at an advanced level, it becomes extremely difficult to control and can even be a significant financial burden for the patient. Regular check-ups are an excellent way to keep informed about what you can do to enhance your health and lower your risk of disease.

Detection of Blood diseases

A blood test is a part of your whole body checkup and is a kinda important one. These procedures are carried out to reduce the possibility of illnesses manifesting inside your blood cells. Cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, anemia, HIV/AIDS, and coronary artery disease are among them. Blood tests also allow doctors to assess the health of numerous body organs such as the liver, kidneys, heart, and thyroid.

Build better rapport with doctors

In the medical field, a general and periodic health checkup is considered a healthy practice. Conducting periodic health checks implies paying more visits to the concerned doctor, which aids in the development of mutual trust. It is necessary to visit and consult the same doctor, in case of regular checkups, as they will know your medical history which will be beneficial in your treatment.

Adaptation of Healthy Habits

In today’s frantic world, it’s not easy or possible for you to find enough time and prepare a proper diet chart in order to stay healthy. Getting a frequent health exam provides you with a good understanding of how to adopt healthier eating habits by letting you know what to eat and what to avoid.
Consulting your doctor and preparing a proper dietary plan is the best way to introduce healthy habits to your lifestyle.

Conclusion

A regular health check-up helps in assessing various health problems, that you might be unaware of yet. If any disease or illness is discovered, the person is made aware of all the lifestyle and medicine modifications that must be made. Incorporating these modifications, including fitness regimens, healthy eating habits, and required safeguards, delivers a slew of benefits to your future lifetime, hence improving it.
We often take our mental and physical health for granted. All it takes is a little extra effort on our part, and our good health is not as far away as one may think.

Why have heart attacks become prevalent in young people?

Heart attack is a concerning problem. But there is something more worrisome: heart attacks are becoming more common among young adults under the age of 40, particularly those in their twenties and thirties. Earlier people above the age of 40 were considered to have the biggest risk of heart attacks, but these days the problem is typically affecting those in the age group of 20-30 years.

As we move ahead in the blog, it’ll educate about heart attack, its causes, and develop a long-term plan to prevent heart attack at an early age.

What is a Heart Attack?

When the blood supply to the heart is cut off, a heart attack occurs. The most common cause of blockage is a buildup of fat, cholesterol, and other chemicals in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, forming plaque. A plaque can burst and generate a clot, obstructing blood flow. Parts of the heart muscle can be damaged or destroyed if blood flow is disrupted.

Although a heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, can be fatal, therapy has vastly improved over the years. If you think you’re experiencing a heart attack, contact 112 or get emergency medical care right away.

Symptoms of Heart Attack

Below listed are the symptoms associated with a heart attack:

  • Pain or building up pressure in your chest or arms, tightness, or a squeezing or hurting sensation that may move to your neck, jaw, or back.
  • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn, or abdominal pain
  • Breathing problems
  • Sweating
  • Fatigue
  • Sudden dizziness or lightheadedness

Heart attacks Affecting 20-30-year-Olds

Heart attacks were once thought to be an issue for the elderly. A heart attack in someone under the age of 40 was extremely uncommon. One in every five heart attack patients is now under the age of 40.
The most troubling fact is that heart attacks affect more people in their 20s & 30s, as it has become more common at this age. Patients in their 20s and 30s face the same dangers associated with heart attacks. Regardless of your age, you have the same chance of dying from a second major heart event or a stroke after your first heart attack.

Increasing Risk of Diabetes

There’s a reason why heart attacks are so common in young people these days: The increasing risk factor of Diabetes 2. Young people suffering from diabetes have more chances of having death through heart disease/heart attack than those without diabetes. When your blood sugar level is uncontrolled to stay at a healthy level, it leads to heart problems. High blood sugar harms blood vessels, increasing the risk of lipids accumulating in arteries and causing atherosclerosis.

Patients with diabetes are also more likely to have other chronic health conditions, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which raise the risk of a heart attack.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a number of factors, which includes:

  • Obesity and weight gain
  • Reduced physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle
  • Unhealthy dietary choices
  • Increasing risk of Hypertension in young people

One of the most critical risk factors for cardiovascular disease is hypertension or high blood pressure. Unfortunately, the incidence of hypertension has become more prevalent in young adults than in older people. High blood pressure causes heart muscle thickening, damages blood arteries, and raises the risk of a heart attack.

Overweight and Obesity

Increased weight or obesity has a major contribution in increasing the chances of a heart attack in younger people. Excess weight puts a lot of strain on your heart. Even if you’re healthy, obesity is the factor that can increase the chances of a heart attack. Patients who are overweight or obese, on the other hand, are more likely to have additional health problems that affect their heart health, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
Smoking

Among the many factors that contribute to heart attacks in young adults, smoking cigarettes is one of the most prominent causes. The quantity of cigarettes you smoke raises your chance of a heart attack. When compared to nonsmokers, smoking one pack every day more than doubles your risk of a heart attack. The same applies to e-cigarettes, nicotine and other harmful substances in e-cigarettes speed up your heart rate and elevate your blood pressure.

Other unhealthy habits

Health practitioners are still researching the effect of marijuana on your heart. But it is also known that it boosts your heart rate and raises the risk of a heart attack. The same is the problem with cocaine, it increases heart rate, hardens the blood vessels, and raises blood pressure. These are the problems associated with heart attacks.

Conclusion

Heart attack is a concerning factor for young adults, but it can be prevented by introducing a healthy and productive lifestyle. You can do this by making lifestyle changes and taking proper medications whenever required to maintain your health. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, control cholesterol, and keep yourself healthy. As an adult there is so little you can do to keep yourself healthy. Introduce a healthy lifestyle and prevent the danger of heart attack.

All about Omicron Virus – How dangerous is the New COVID-19 Variant?

Omicron Virus was first detected in Botswana and South Africa, when it was reported to WHO on November 24th. Scientists and public health experts are concerned about this new coronavirus variant. This new variant is said to be more transmissible and less detectable as the virus has an unusually high number of mutations.

Omicron Virus is a new strain of the virus that causes COVID-19, also known as B.1.1.529. The World Health Organization has labelled the Omicron virus a “variant of concern”. This variant has a large number of mutations and some of which are quite concerning. The variant is highly transmissible and has been detected at higher rates as compared to the other variants.

The organization has warned about the possibility of worldwide hazards as the new variant contains the factor of high risk. So far, the Omicron cases have been found in 20 nations, including India, the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

What makes omicron different from other variants?

Scientists all over the world are working to comprehend the Omicron variant of Covid-19. This variant is thought to be more hazardous than other variants of COVID-19. Also, according to WHO, it is not sure if Omicron is a more severe disease as compared to other variants. Yet, vaccination is important in minimizing the effect of this new variant.

Omicron has a higher risk of reinfection than other variations of concern, but, information is very little or scarce. The variant carries higher chances of reinfection, i.e. people who previously had COVID have a higher risk of getting infected with Omicron.

Not enough information has been gathered about this new variant, however, reinfections are likely but vaccinated people have fewer chances of developing serious disease.

What are the symptoms to watch out for?

symptoms of omricon

The symptoms associated with Omicron are very similar to previous COVID variants but also differ slightly.

Most Common Symptoms

Fever, cough, weariness, and loss of taste or smell are the most prevalent symptoms of the novel COVID Variant Omicron.

Less Common Symptoms

Sore throat, headache, aches, pains, diarrhoea, a rash on the skin, red or inflamed eyes, and discolouration of fingers or toes are some of the less common symptoms of the novel COVID Variant Omicron.

Serious Symptoms

The novel COVID Variant “Omicron” causes serious symptoms such as trouble breathing or shortness of breath, loss of speech, immobility, ambiguity, and chest pain.
Note – If anyone experiences these symptoms they should immediately consult a doctor and urgently take a COVID test.

What precautions should we take?

covid precautions

According to the Union Government, people should not be alarmed and should instead practice COVID-19-appropriate behaviour and be vaccinated as soon as possible. While experts predict that more information on Omicron will become available in the coming weeks, the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has issued a FAQ to help citizens understand what the Omicron variant of COVID-19 is and what precautions they should take to prevent the stain from spreading.

It is assumed that the precautions and actions to be taken are the same as they were previously. It’s critical to keep your mask on, get completely vaccinated (if not already vaccinated), maintain social distance, and get good ventilation.

How quickly could it spread?

The quick rise of Omicron in South Africa is what researchers are most concerned about, as it shows the mutation could induce a surge in COVID-19 cases elsewhere. Considering the rise in COVID-19 cases and the gathered data, it could be said that Omicron can affect three to six times as many people as Delta and in the same time period. Researchers are actively watching the Omicron spread in other parts of South Africa and all over the world to get a better understanding of its transmissible ability.

Does Omicron cause more severe illness?

Latest reports depict Omicron as a modest or less severe disease. There are chances that this variant will be milder than the previous ones. However, no confirmation is received about this data and prediction. In comparison to the Delta version, which triggered the second wave of coronavirus in the country, the Omicron variant is predicted to cause three times more reinfections. But it can be said that this variant is less dangerous than other variants and is much more likely to be prevented through vaccination.

Will the Covid-19 Omicron variant cause the third wave in India?

As the fast-spreading Omicron makes its way into India, it’s impossible not to wonder if there will be a third wave of Covid-19. And, if that’s the case, is India ready? The second wave of the coronavirus pandemic has hit India hard. However, it is too early to conclude that the Omicron variety will result in the third wave of COVID-19 in the country.
The majority of Indians have antibodies against the fatal virus, and four-fifths of all people have already been partially vaccinated hence, it is unlikely that majority of the Indians will be infected. Furthermore, given India’s rapid vaccination rate and significant exposure to the delta form, the disease’s severity is expected to be minimal.

Conclusion

The central government has advised people not to be alarmed by the new strain and has also stressed the importance of public awareness. The Indian government is keeping a close eye on the situation and issuing appropriate directives as needed.

The precautionary measures and arrangements may also provide greater assistance. It depends highly on the behavioural patterns of the public towards the Omicron virus and its mutants. Stay at home, follow doctor’s advice, maintain distance and help the nation to overcome the impact of the Third wave of COVID-19.

How to select the best physician for your medical treatment?

Finding the right physician is crucial for any treatment. Your primary care physician is the person you will approach for all of your medical issues. They are there to assist you and make necessary decisions for your health by advising, educating, examining, and treating you. There are different types of doctors who can deliver prime care to a patient. Finding the proper doctor will require clarification of your wants and needs from a physician.

Amidst the wide choice, there are several practical aspects to consider before looking for a primary care physician. These factors include – area, eligibility, individual medical needs, and more. Choosing a physician that is far from your region or out of the network can be costly and cumbersome, that is why the following factors should be considered. Patients have a lot of alternatives when it comes to finding a new primary care physician.

It is important to find a doctor you can trust and openly share your problems with. But, when you’re going through a huge list of names on websites and in directories, it is not as easy to identify your health partner (physician). Here are some vital factors to consider while finding a primary care physician:

Recommendations from Friends and Family

Asking for referrals from people you trust is one method to find a primary care physician to fit your convenience. Your family, friends, and coworkers can provide you with valuable information about the doctors they go to.
You can also seek recommendations from allied health professionals like – pharmacists, dentists, physical therapists, and other healthcare professionals who may be able to provide you with useful information on primary care physicians. Furthermore, they may be able to make alternative medical recommendations for you to consider in your search.

Consider the Locality

Before making a decision, ask these questions – ‘How far is the hospital or the physician’s practice center’? ‘How long will it take to reach the place’. The doctor that you have chosen might fit all the brackets but if they are not near to where you live, it can be cumbersome to travel to get the appropriate treatment. Consider that how far is the doctor from your home, school, or office. You will find plenty of health professionals in certain localities while few or none in others. Hence, distance is a vital factor to consider here.

Availability of the Doctor

What are their practise hours? Are they available at the time of emergency or if you need them at night? Are on-call services available? How long does it take to get an appointment? Does the physician offer online check-ups and advice?

While selecting your primary care physician make sure you have the perfect answers to all the above-mentioned questions as per your needs and requirements. A doctor’s availability at any time is important for a patient and especially at the time of emergencies. Hence, make sure the doctor that you choose is easily available whenever you need them.

Is the staff friendly and professional?

You’ll interact with the hospital staff on a frequent basis. Many of your encounters with your primary care provider will be handled by other medical professionals like nurses, receptionists, compounders, etc. Their services would include scheduling and rescheduling appointments, addressing billing concerns, and requesting refills.
Consider these points – What is the staff’s approach towards your problem? Do they address your questions appropriately? Do they bridge the communication between you and the doctor?

Practitioners that meets your health and medical needs

Every doctor is a professional, but the biggest concern is whether they have expertise in the area where you seek proper treatment. A primary physician can be of any type – Family Practice, Internal Medicine, or General Practice. There are also pediatricians or doctors that specialize in children, who will function as your child’s main care physician.

  • Family Practice – The practitioners of FM are general physicians and treat people of all ages from newborns to the elderly.
  • Internal MedicineInternal Medicine physicians generally specialize in adult treatment prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and chronic disorders.
  • General Practice – General practitioners are very similar to Family practice physicians and treat patients of all ages.

Visit the doctor

A face-to-face meeting and an office visit are the only ways to fully tell if you’ve chosen the correct doctor. Your primary care physician should be someone you can trust and rely on when it comes to managing your healthcare. Discuss any current medicines you’re taking as well as your medical history with him or her to ensure that you’re on the same page when it comes to managing chronic diseases.
You should also evaluate other environmental factors like hygiene, treatment methods, the doctor’s response towards you, etc.

Conclusion

While making a decision for a primary health provider, ask your friends, family, work colleagues, etc. The Internet can be quite useful for you. Here are the following things that you should consider before making a decision regarding your physician:

  • Area
  • Time and availability
  • Access to online health checkup
  • Language of communication

It may take some time and effort to find the appropriate provider, but the benefits of having a primary care physician you can trust and be comfortable with are paramount for your own health.

 

क्या होता है निमोनिया? जानिएं इसके लक्षण और बचाव के उपाय!

सर्दी का मौसम शुरू होते ही जुकाम और खांसी से जुड़ी बीमारियों के बढ़ने की संभावनाएं भी बढ़ जाती हैं। आमतौर पर हम जुकाम और खांसी से तो ठीक हो जाते हैं लेकिन कुछ बीमा​रियां ऐसी होती हैं जो सर्दी में अपना प्रकोप ज्यादा दिखाती हैं। उन्हीं में से एक नाम है निमोनिया संक्रमण

निमोनिया एक ऐसी बीमारी है जो अधिकतर बच्चोंं में होती है और इससे दुनियाभर में हर साल हज़ारों बच्चों की मृत्यु भी हो जाती है। हालांकि व्यस्क और वृद्धजनों को भी निमोनिया हो सकता है। निमोनिया होने का अधिक खतरा 65 वर्ष से अधिक उम्र के व्यक्तियों और 2 वर्ष से कम उम्र के बच्चों में ज्यादा रहता है। यह एक ऐसी बीमारी है जिसकी समय पर पहचान और उपचार नहीं हो तो यह जानलेवा भी हो सकती है। ऐसे में हमारे लिए इस बीमारी के बारे में जानना आवश्यक है ताकि हम इसके लक्षणों की पहचान कर सके और समय पर उपचार भी ले सकें।

निमोनिया क्या होता है?

फेफड़ों में संक्रमण का हो जाना निमोनिया कहलाता है। इससे फेफड़े में सूजन की स्थिति बन जाती है। निमोनिया मुख्य रूप से विषाणु और जीवाणु के संक्रमण से होता है। यह वायरस, बैक्टीरिया और पेरासाइट्स के कारण भी हो सकता है। इसके अलावा इसके कम तौर पर अन्य सूक्ष्मजीव, कुछ दवाओं और दूसरे रोगों के संक्रमण से भी होने की संभावना रहती है।

साथ ही अगर निमोनिया को बढ़ावा देने वाली परिस्थितियों और कारकों पर बात करें तो धूम्रपान, रोगी प्रतिरोधक क्षमता में कमी, अत्यधिक शराब पीना, फेफड़ों से जुड़ा गंभीर रोग, गंभीर गुर्दा रोग और यकृत रोग शामिल हैं। इसके अलावा कुछ दवाओं जैसे प्रोटॉन-पंप इन्हिबटर्स या H2 ब्लॉकर्स के उपयोग से भी निमोनिया का खतरा बढ़ने की संभावना रहती है। वृद्धावस्था में भी निमोनिया का खतरा बढ़ जाता है। इसके अलावा अस्थमा (दमा), हृदय रोग, ब्रोन्किइक्टेसिस आदि से पीड़ित मरीजों में भी निमोनिया का जोखिम ज्यादा रहता है।

निमोनिया कितने प्रकार का होता है?

निमोनिया पॉंच प्रकार का होता है, जो इस प्रकार है।

  • बैक्टीरियल निमोनिया
  • वायरल निमोनिया
  • माइकोप्लाज्मा निमोनिया
  • एस्पिरेशन निमोनिया
  • फंगल निमोनिया

निमोनिया संक्रमण के लक्षण क्या है?

pneumonia infection symtoms hindi
किसी भी बीमारी की पहचान के लिए उसके लक्षणों की जानकारी होना बहुत जरूरी है। ऐसे में निमोनिया जैसी गंभीर बीमारी के लक्षण भी समय पर पहचान लिए जाए तो उपचार में आसानी रहती है। जानिएं निमोनिया के लक्षण

निमोनिया संक्रमण के प्रमुख लक्षणों में खांसी, सीने में दर्द, बुखार और सांस लेने में कठिनाई होती है। साथ ही अगर आपका तापमान 105 डिग्री फारेनहाइट तक पहुंच गया है तो यह निमोनिया का संकेत हो सकता है।

  • सामान्य तौर पर फ्लू जैसे लक्षण दिखते हैं जो बाद में धीरे धीरे या फिर एक दम से बढ़ने लगते हैं।
  • रोगी में कमजोरी आ जाती है और थकान महसूस होती है।
  • रोगी को बलगम वाली खांसी आती है।
  • रोगी को बुखार के साथ पसीना आता है कंपकंपी महसूस होती है।
  • सांस लेने में कठिनाई होने से रोगी तेज या जोर जोर से सांस लेने लगता है।
  • रोगी को बेचैनी होती है।
  • रोगी को भूख लगनी कम या बंद हो जाती है।
  • बीपी का कम हो जाना
  • खॉंसी में खून आना
  • धड़कन का तेज हो जाना
  • मतली और उल्टी आना

बच्चों में भी निमोनिया के लक्षण इसी प्रकार समान रहते हैं।

निमोनिया की जांचें और उपचार

सामान्य तौर पर निमोनिया के लक्षण दिखने पर तुरंत चिकित्सकीय परामर्श लेना चाहिए। अगर हम निमोनिया की जांच और उपचार पर बात करें तो डॉक्टर के द्वारा रोगी को छाती का एक्सरे करवाने का कहा जाता है। साथ ही स्टेथोस्कोप से फेफड़ों की गति सुनने पर डॉक्टर को फेफड़ोंं से कुछ आवाज आती हुई भी सुनाई देती है। इसके अलावा डॉक्टर्स के द्वारा खून की जांच, सीटी स्कैन, बलगम की जांच, ब्रोंकोस्कोपी आदि भी करवाने की सलाह दी जाती है।

अगर हम निमोनिया संक्रमण के उपचार की बात करें तो य​ह बीमारी की स्थिति, रोगी की उम्र पर भी निर्भर करता है। हालांकि डॉक्टर्स के द्वारा एंटीबायोटिक्स, खांसी कम करने की दवाएं, बुखार एवं दर्द कम करने की दवाएं दी जाती हैं ताकि रोगी को आराम मिल सके। इसके अलावा कुछ घरेलू उपायों के द्वारा भी रोगी को राहत देने का कार्य किया जाता है।

निमोनिया संक्रमण होने पर अस्पताल में भर्ती कब होना चाहिए?

चिकित्सकीय परामर्श के बाद अगर ​डॉक्टर को लगता है कि आपको अस्पताल में भर्ती किया जाना चाहिए तब वे भर्ती होने की सलाह देते हैं। हालांकि इन विभिन्न परिस्थितियों में रोगी के अस्पताल में भर्ती होने की संभावना रहती है, वह इस प्रकार हैं।

  • अगर रोगी की आयु 5 वर्ष से कम एवं 65 वर्ष से अधिक हो।
  • यदि रोगी में स्थान, समय एवं व्यक्ति को लेकर भ्रम की स्थिति हो।
  • अगर सांस लेने में अत्यधिक तकलीफ हो।
  • अगर रोगी का तापमान 105 डिग्री फारेनहाइट तक हो।
  • यदि हार्ट बीट की दर 50 से कम या 100 से अधिक हो।

निमोनिया संक्रमण से बचाव के तरीके क्या है?

Pneumonia Infection prevention
प्रथम तौर पर जन्म के बाद टीकाकरण के माध्यम से निमोनिया को रोका जा सकता है। इसमें शिशुओं के लिए PVC13 और बच्चों व वयस्कों के लिए PPSV23 नामक टीके लगाए जाते हैं। निमोनिया से बचाव के लिए दूसरे तरीकों में धूम्रपान से दूरी, साफ सफाई रखने, मास्क पहनने, पौष्टिक आहार लेने, व्यायाम, योग के माध्यम से निमोनिया से बचा जा सकता है।

Learn about Fungal Infections and Diseases in Brief

Fungal Infection of the skin is also known as Mycosis. It is a mild disease, however, in some conditions, it can also lead to severe disease. It can affect anyone and can appear on any part of the body. Fungal diseases in humans are caused when an invasive fungus takes over an area of the body that the immune system cannot control. Different types of fungi can cause fungal infection and it can be contagious. The most common diseases caused by fungal infection are Athlete foot, Fungal nail infections, Ringworm, Vaginal candidiasis, candida infections on the mouth, throat, and oesophagus. There are several anti-fungal medicines available for fungal infection treatment.

Note: The treatment should be taken as per the doctor’s recommendation.

What is Fungal Infection?

Fungal Infection is a skin disease caused by fungus. Just like microbes, there are two types of fungus – helpful fungus and harmful fungus. A fungal infection is caused when a harmful fungus invades the body and starts growing in a particular region. These fungi can be difficult to kill and their growth prevention is only possible with the help of medicines.

Fungal infections can be contagious and can spread from person to person. Its prevention is a must. In some severe cases, one might be infected with disease-causing fungi, spread from infected animals, or contaminated soil or surfaces.

Fungal Infection – What are its types?

Fungal Infection can occur anywhere on one’s body. Mycosis is the medical term for a fungal infection. Although most fungi are harmless to humans, some of them can cause disease in certain circumstances.

The most common types of fungal infections are:

 

Athlete’s foot

The athlete’s foot is also known as Tinea Pedis. It is a fungal infection that infects your foot and is contagious. The fungi develop in warm and damp environments in areas like shoes, socks, locker rooms, etc. These are generally found in hot and humid climates.

Following proper hygiene like changing sweaty socks and cleaning shoes might prevent the infection.

Symptoms :
  • Itching
  • Stinging
  • Burning sensation
  • The skin might crack, peel or blister

Jock Itch

Jock itch is caused by tinea, a type of fungus. It is also known as tinea cruris. Tinea develops in warm and humid body environments like genitals, inner thigh, and buttocks. The infection usually happens in summer when the environment is suitable for the fungus to grow. Jock itch is a rash that is usually ring-shaped and is red and itchy.

Symptoms:
  • Redness on skin
  • Itchiness
  • Burning sensation
  • Cracks on skin
  • Rashes
  • Changes in skin colour

Ringworm

Ringworm, as the name suggests isn’t really a worm but a fungal infection. It is also called Tinea Corporis. Ringworm, as the name suggests, can cause a circular rash (ring-shaped) that is usually red and itchy.

Symptoms:
  • Patches that blister and bleed
  • Bald patches on the scalp
  • Ring-shaped patches
  • Thick, discoloured, or cracked nails

Yeast Infection

Yeast infection is also called Cutaneous Candidiasis. The infection is caused by a type of fungus called Candida. The infection is not contagious. It develops mostly in warm and damp areas of body-like armpits. This infection mostly affects obese people and the ones with diabetes.

Symptoms:
  • Pain
  • Itchiness
  • Fluid discharge
  • Swelling
  • redness

Toenail Fungus

Onychomycosis is a fungus that can harm your toenails, fingernails, and nail beds.
It is also known as Tinea Unguium. A small light-coloured spot appears on the toe skin and as it grows deeper, it changes into the colour of the nail.

Symptoms:
  • Patches under the nail
  • White or yellow streaks under the nail
  • Broken nailbed
  • Thick nails

Some common symptoms related to Fungal Infections

Fungal infections are most likely to affect the regions like skin, nails, or lungs. Once infected, fungi can also affect your organs. This can lead to many organ-related problems in the body.

There are some symptoms related to fungal infection. Understanding them might help you prevent the infection at an early stage. The symptoms of fungal infection generally depend on its type, but these are the most common symptoms of fungal infection:

  • Irritation
  • Scaly skin
  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Swelling
  • Blisters

Diagnosis of Fungal Infection

fungal infection

Fungal infection is generally visible as it creates some patches or discolouration on the affected region. An infection caused by a fungus can be identified based on its appearance. In such conditions, it is necessary to consult a doctor and get it tested. If doctors are uncertain, they usually take a skin sample to inspect for the fungus. It is generally done to diagnose the type of fungus that has infected the area.

In some cases like yeast infection, the doctor may ask about the patient’s medical history and ask for a skin sample for test. They might also question if the person has taken antibiotics as it might also be the cause of infection.

Treatment:

After the diagnosis is done and the type of fungal infection is confirmed, the doctor will recommend a treatment, depending on the symptoms. A treatment includes – ointments for application on the skin, creams, anti-fungal medicines, tablets, and suppositories, as these are sufficient to treat maximum cases of fungal infection. Some severe cases might require regular check-ups and a prescription. Cleaning the infected area and maintaining the hygiene by keeping it dry, may help in quick recovery.

Prevention:

  • Wear loose clothes
  • Take a balanced diet as it helps in increasing immunity
  • Keep gentle parts of the body like – armpits, genitals, vagina clean and dry
  • Maintain proper hygiene
  • Wash underwear and clothes properly
  • Avoid using shared items like towels

Conclusion:

Regular treatment can be used to treat fungal skin infections. This includes – application of ointments, medicines, etc. Severe infections may necessitate the use of additional treatments. Taking necessary preventions might help in reducing the effect of the infection and block it from growing further. Always consult your doctors if any such symptoms are noticed on the skin, to prevent serious complications. Most cases of fungal infection can be easily treated with necessary precautions and medicines.

Understanding Post-covid Problems: How to handle symptoms after recovery?

COVID-19 is a malicious disease that has paced all over the world. After its first appearance, the world had to go under a second wave which saw more deaths and increased occurrences of post-COVID problems. By far, people are readily following government guidelines to prevent the third wave of COVID-19. The government has made it mandatory for all eligible individuals to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Following its threat, people are not just frightened of the illness but also its after-effects. Coronavirus is a posing problem as it leads to various lung and heart diseases even after recovery.

Even a minor case of COVID-19 can cause agonizing headaches, intense exhaustion, and body aches that make it difficult to get comfortable. Most people being affected with COVID-19 gets better within a few weeks, but eventually, fall a victim to post COVID illness. Even after recovery people generally experience a month-long weakness, fatigue, and other health-related issues. Even persons who did not show symptoms of COVID-19 in the days or weeks following their infection can develop post-COVID complications.

These symptoms after initial recovery are also called long COVID, long-haul COVID, post-acute COVID-19, long-term effects of COVID, or chronic COVID. Aged people or people with some long-term existing illness have high chances of experiencing lingering COVID-19 symptoms.

How do the post-COVID symptoms affect after recovery?

Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which begins while a person is hospitalized and can even remain after being fully recovered and discharged. Severe sickness weakens thinking ability and post-traumatic stress disorder are all possible side effects of hospitalization (PTSD). PTSD is the result of long-term reactions to a traumatic incident.

Some symptoms that a person experience after their discharge are very similar to the symptoms of mild COVID illness. It becomes difficult to comprehend the after-effects of the virus and PTSD. However, it is necessary to consult a doctor before assuming anything. Good health is the sign of complete recovery, and in COVID, until and unless you are completely healthy you have not fully recovered.

Post-COVID Symptoms – What are those?

Usually, some people experience symptoms that can last for weeks or months after recovery from COVID-19. These symptoms can occur in any person even if they have mild or severe COVID illness. The post-COVID symptoms include:

  • Difficulty in breathing or short breaths
  • Fatigue
  • Conditions that worsen after physical or mental activities (also known as post-exertional malaise)
  • Difficulty in maintaining concentration
  • Cough
  • Chest or stomach pain
  • Headache
  • Fast heart-beats (also known as heart palpitations)
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Itching
  • Diarrhoea
  • Sleeping issues
  • Fever
  • Frequent dizziness
  • Rashes
  • Mood swings
  • Change in smell or taste
  • Changes in menstrual period cycles

People with maximum risk of developing post-COVID syndrome include:

  • Old age people
  • People recovered from severe illness
  • Individuals with bad health conditions, particularly cardiopulmonary issues, hypertension, diabetes, or obesity

What are the long-term effects of COVID-19?

The most common long-lasting effects of COVID are – Fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, Chest pain. Some other long term effects include:

Lung Problems

A bad case of COVID-19 can cause long-term and permanent issues related to the lungs like breathing problems. Even a meagre infection can cause shortness of breath for a long period.

Heart Problems

It is proven that 60% of those recovering from COVID have signs of ongoing heart problems, leading to inflammation of heart muscles. Some common symptoms include – shortness of breath, palpitations, and rapid heartbeat.

Kidney Damage

If the COVID has caused kidney damage, it might need dialysis

Neurological problems

Long-term symptoms of COVID may include brain fog, fatigue, headaches, and dizziness. More research is being done in the field.

Distorted Smell or Taste

The coronavirus directly affects the cells present in the nose and tongue as these senses are interrelated. A case of COVID-19 can result in a loss of taste or smell. It’s not life-threatening but a long loss of taste or smell can lead to a lack of appetite, anxiety, and depression.

Mental Health issues

The lingering effects of COVID-19 can even lead to anxiety and depression. Mental Health issues are very common in people recovering from COVID-19, especially those who were hospitalized. Physical and mental changes like long isolation, job loss, financial issues could be quiet problematic after a recovery. Consult a psychiatrist or a therapist for physical and mental health improvement.

It is also important to remember that most people who suffer from COVID-19 recover quickly but can still have lingering effects of COVID. The long-lasting impact of COVID-19, make it really necessary to prevent it from spreading. Its spread could only be reduced by following the necessary precautions. Precautions include wearing masks, social distancing, avoiding crowds, getting a vaccine when available, and keeping hands clean.

What should you do if you’re experiencing post-COVID syndrome?

  • Schedule an appointment with your primary health physician
  • If you were hospitalized for a more severe illness then there are chances that you were treated by a cardiologist.
  • Better consult a cardiologist for heart diseases and chest pain.
  • Eat healthy food and drink plenty of water
  • Keep a check on your heartbeats and breathing rates
  • Do breathing exercises to maintain breathing capacity after being affected by COVID

Lastly, remember these preventive measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and to stop it from spreading:

  • Social distancing
  • Wear a mask
  • Avoid crowds or large gatherings
  • Practice excellent hand hygiene and avoid touching your face constantly

How to reduce the long-term effects of COVID-19?

The long-lasting effects of COVID-19 become even more important for us to reduce its spread. This can be done by following a major step i.e. getting a COVID-19 vaccine. (if you are eligible) click here to read more – https://www.chaudharyhospital.in/corona-vaccine-important-information-hindi/

  • Consult your doctor or physician to understand self-management of these after-effects
  • Take the prescribed medicines till the symptoms are not eradicated completely.
  • Note down the symptoms, their ranges, and their impact on your well-being, and record the progress as well.
  • For symptoms of mental issues, consult a therapist or join self-help groups. It can help you deal with anxiety, depression, or sleep problems
  • Ensure that you have emergency contacts – doctors, physicians, cardiologists (for respiratory problems), and a therapist in all cases.
  • Stay motivated and take a healthy diet to improve immunity to fight against such diseases.

If you’re not eligible for vaccination, then take necessary precautions to protect yourself and others from the threat of COVID.

Conclusion

Considering that the outcomes of COVID are severe, it becomes necessary to take necessary precautions in such hard times. The most important step is to get the COVID-19 vaccine and follow government guidelines. If any of your family members have suffered from COVID, and experienced post-COVID problems, then consult your doctor and take timely measures for complete recovery.

जानिए क्या हैं डेंगू बुखार एवं उसके कारण ,लक्षण और इलाज

मौसम में परिवर्तन होने के साथ ही बीमार होना भी स्वाभाविक है, इसमें कुछ ऐसी बीमारियां होती है जो आगे चलकर हमारे लिए घातक सिद्ध हो सकती हैं। ऐसे में इन बीमारियों से बचाव के उपाय ही हमें स्वस्थ रख सकते हैं। इसी में एक बीमारी है डेंगू।

डेंगू का यूं तो कोई पूर्णतः इलाज नहीं है इसीलिए प्रथम तौर पर इसके कारणों के रोकथाम को अपनाने की ही सलाह दी जाती है ताकि हम इस बीमारी से बचे रहें।

डेंगू क्या हैं?

डेंगू (dengue) एक प्रकार का वायरस है। इससे होने वाला बुखार ही डेंगू का बुखार कहलाता है। यह बीमारी एडीज नामक मच्छर के काटने से होती है। डेंगू आमतौर पर मादा एडीज़ इजिप्टी मच्छर के काटने से फैलता है। ये विशेष प्रकार के मच्छर होते हैं, जिनके शरीर पर चीते जैसी धारियां पाई जाती हैं।

एडीज के काटने के 3 से 5 दिन के बाद डेंगू बुखार के लक्षण दिखने लगते हैं। एडीज मच्छर को पूरी तरह से खत्म कर पाना संभव नहीं है और यह मच्छर गर्म माहौल में भी जिंदा रह सकता है। एडीज इजिप्टी मच्छर के अंडे इतने बारीक होते हैं कि इन्हें आंखों से नहीं देखा जा सकता है।

एडीज मच्छर के काटने पर वायरस तेजी से मरीज के शरीर में अपना असर दिखाने है। जिसके कारण तेज बुखार और सिर दर्द जैसे लक्षण दिखाई देते है। डेंगू होने पर मरीज के ब्‍लड में प्लेटलेट्स की संख्या तेजी से कम होने लगती है जिसके कारण कई बार रोगी की जान का खतरा तक बन जाता है। डेंगू के शुरुआती लक्षण सामान्य बुखार से मिलते जुलते होते हैं।

डेंगू के लक्षण क्या हैं?

डेंगू आमतौर पर बच्चों को होने वाली बीमारी है लेकिन बड़े भी इसका शिकार हो जाते हैं। वैसे तो डेंगू के लक्षण भी सामान्य बुखार जैसे ही होते हैं। एडीज मच्छर के काटने के 4 दिनों से लेकर 2 सप्ताह के बीच कभी भी डेंगू के लक्षण दिखाई दे सकते हैं।

  • 40°C / 104°F टेंपरेचर वाला तेज बुखार
  • डेंगू के दौरान रोगी को 40 डिग्री सेल्सियस तापमान का तेज बुखार आता हैं।
  • -तेज सिर दर्द
  • डेंगू में व्यक्ति के सिर में तेज दर्द होता है।
  • आंखों के पीछे दर्द
  • रोगी को सिर दर्द के साथ आंखों के पीछे भी दर्द होता है।
  • उल्टी, हड्डियों में दर्द
  • डेंगू के दौरान जी मचलना या उल्टी लगना, ग्रंथियों में सूजन हो जाना, जोड़ों, हड्डियों और मांसपेशियों में दर्द होना और त्वचा पर लाल चकत्ते होना भी

अन्य लक्षण

इसके अलावा गंभीर लक्षणों में मसूड़ों से खून आना, खून की उल्टी लगना, तेज-तेज सांस आना और शरीर टूटना/बेचैनी जैसे लक्षण भी डेंगू में देखे जाते हैं।

डेंगू बुखार को कैसे पहचाने

डेंगू की प्रथम चरण में पहचान मुश्किल है लेकिन कुछ लक्षणों के आधार पर हम इसे पहचान सकते हैं। डेंगू में बुखार का तापमान चढ़ जाता है और बुखार आने के वक्त ठंड लगने लगती है। इसके अलावा भूख लगनी कम हो जाती है और ब्लडप्रेशर भी गिरने लगता है और चक्कर आने शुरू हो जाते हैं।

इसके अलावा डेंगू से जब रोगी गंभीर अवस्था में पहुंच जाता है तब लक्षण बढ़ जाते हैं। जिसमें पेट में तेज दर्द होना, लीवर और सीने में फ्लूइड का जमा होना, खून में प्लेटलेट्स का कम होना, रक्तस्राव आदि लक्षण भी नज़र आने लगते हैं।

डेंगू बुखार होने के कारण

  • डेंगू दिन में काटने वाले 2 प्रकार के मच्छरों एडिज इजिप्टी और एडिज एल्बोपेक्टस के काटने से होता है।
  • डेंगू वायरस 4 प्रकार का होता है। यह DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4 के नाम से जाना जाता है। इसमें DEN – 1 और DEN – 3 अधिक खतरनाक होता है। डेंगू बुखार ‘डेंगू’ वायरस के संक्रमण से होता है।
  • डेंगू सभी प्रकार के मच्छरों से नहीं फैलता है। यह केवल कुछ जाति के मच्छरों के काटने से होता है। जो मुख्यतः ‘फ्लाविविरिडे’ परिवार और ‘फ्लाविविरस’ जीन का हिस्सा होते है।

डेंगू बुखार से बचाव के उपाय

1. डेंगू से बचाव के लिए घर के आसपास पानी जमा नहीं होने देना चाहिए। इसके अलावा लंबे समय तक किसी भी बर्तन में पानी भरकर नहीं रखना चाहिए क्योंकि इससे मच्छर पनपने का खतरा रहता है।

2. पीने का पानी को हमेशा ढंककर रखना और बदलते रहना चाहिए ताकि मच्छरों को बढ़ने का मौका नहीं मिले।

3. कूलर का पानी हर दिन बदलते रहना चाहिए, इसमें भी मच्छर पनपने का खतरा बढ़ जाता है।

4. खि‍ड़की और दरवाजों पर मच्छर से बचने के लिए जाली लगानी चाहिए ताकि बाहर के मच्छर अंदर नहीं आ सके।

5. हमेशा पूरी बांह के कपड़े पहनने चाहिए या फिर शरीर को जितना हो सके ढंक कर रखना चाहिए ताकि मच्छर नहीं काट सके।

डेंगू का इलाज क्या है?

डेंगू का इलाज चिकित्सकीय परामर्श से जरूर संभव है। लेकिन इसके लिए कोई वैक्सीन उपलब्ध नहीं है। इसीलिए डेंगू से रोकथाम की सलाह दी जाती है।

  • डेंगू होने पर अधिकाधिक आराम करें।
  • चिकित्सकीय सलाह लेकर इलाज करवाएं
  • शरीर में पानी की कमी नहीं होने दें।
  • तरल पदार्थों का सेवन करते रहें।
  • साफ, स्वच्छ एवं मच्छरों से बचाव कर सोए।

डॉ.चौधरी हॉस्पिटल

उदयपुर (राजस्थान ) के हिरण मगरी सेक्टर 4 एरिया में स्थित डॉ.चौधरी हॉस्पिटल शहर का प्रमुख मल्टीस्पेशलिटी अस्पताल है। 2005 में स्थापित डॉ.चौधरी हॉस्पिटल में संभाग भर से हज़ारों मरीज इलाज के लिए आते हैं एवं ठीक होकर घर जाते हैं। चौधरी हॉस्पिटल में उचित दरों में इलाज व जांच सुविधा उपलब्ध है।

डॉ.चौधरी हॉस्पिटल की विशेषताएं

  • एनएबीएच प्रमाणित
  • स्वास्थ्य सेवाओं में 15 साल का अनुभव
  • प्रति वर्ष 4 लाख+जांचें
  • विशेषज्ञ डॉक्टरों की टीम
  • सटीक परिणाम
  • अत्याधुनिक डायग्नोस्टिक लैब्स
  • कोविड केयर यूनिट

Everything you need to know about Scrub Typhus

Scrub Typhus, often known as bush typhus, is a bacterial disease. It is a Rickettsial infection caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi. As a vector-borne illness, it has been previously reported in India and other South Asian countries. Scrub typhus is transmitted to humans via infected chigger bites (larval mites). The mite only feeds on warm-blooded animals’ serum during its development cycle. The results of which are visible bite marks on the groin, armpits, genitalia, and neck are common as a result of the attack. Symptoms like – fever, headache, body aches, and rash, are commonly noticed in patients. 

Scrub Typhus is an emerging threat in India. In the last month, numerous cases of scrub typhus were reported in cities of Uttar Pradesh. The first case was reported in Firozabad (UP), and then the disease started spreading in cities like – Agra, Mathura, Mainpuri, Etah, and Kasganj. According to TWC India, many people are preparing to vacate their houses and move to a different city to escape the panic that emerges with the disease. 

Here we address a few questions about Scrub Typhus – its causes, diagnoses, and treatment. 

What are the symptoms of Scrub Typhus?

Symptoms of scrub typhus typically begin within ten days of a bite from mites. Its symptoms are similar to that of many other vector-borne or rickettsial diseases. The signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Body aches and muscle pain
  • A dark, scab-like region at the site of the chigger bite (also known as eschar)
  • Mental changes, ranging from confusion to coma
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Rash

Some patients experience joint pains, which is a symptom of chikungunya. The infection can cause breathing difficulties, brain and lung disease, kidney failure, and subsequently multi-organ failure, which can lead to death. Organ failure and bleeding are common in people with serious illnesses, and if left untreated, they can be fatal.

Diagnosis and Testing

As the early symptoms are not disease-specific, the diagnosis can be difficult. Generally, the disease is revealed through a blood test. There is no vaccine yet for this bacterial disease. Hence, antibiotic doxycycline is generally prescribed to the patients. 

Scrub typhus has symptoms that are similar to those of many other diseases and infections. If you get the symptoms indicated above after spending time in an area where scrub typhus is present and is found in other people, you should necessarily consult a doctor.

If you’ve recently travelled, let your healthcare professional know where you went and when. Give then a detailed description of your travel history. This will help in a clear and early diagnosis of the disease.

What are the treatments for the disease?

There is no vaccine or any proper treatment available for this illness. However, antibiotics could be given to the patient for the treatment. Scrub typhus should be treated with the antibiotic doxycycline. Doxycycline can be used or given to a patient of any age. Antibiotics are most effective and give the best results if given at the early stages of the disease (as soon as the symptoms begin. Those who are treated with doxycycline recover quickly. 

What preventive measures should be taken against Scrub Typhus?

Things to keep in mind:

  • No vaccine is available for Scrub typhus, so immediately seek medical treatment, if any related symptoms are noticed
  • It is necessary to reduce the risk of getting infected by scrub typhus. Hence avoid contact with infected chiggers
  • When traveling to areas with prone scrub typhus, avoid areas or places with vegetation and brush off before you sit or if you locate a chigger somewhere
  • Insect repellent can be used to kill the mites and prevent further development in the house
  • Avoid busy areas or areas with more plantations as they may have disease-carrying bacteria’s – Chigger
  • Wear full protective clothing and don’t go near busy areas with uncovered body parts. It is recommended especially for children to cover their arms and legs, and use mosquito nets for protection. 

To combat this situation, the government has ordered to cut bushes on a regular basis to prevent chigger development in the areas. Immediate actions are taken to prevent further growth of chiggers. Patients appear to have received the medications they sought. The government is still devising strategies to curb the spread of the disease.

Conclusion:

After COVID-19, the emergence of scrub typhus should be addressed properly. The disease has not yet spread widely but there are chances of plague in the nearby areas. Government orders should be followed properly and utmost care should be taken in order to prevent the infection. Use insect repellant and wear full clothes for firsthand prevention of the infection. Besides, follow the government’s guidelines. Make sure to seek treatment immediately if you experience any of the above-listed symptoms.

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