What is Black Jaundice and how is it different from Yellow Jaundice?

In recent years, emerging infectious diseases have become a global concern. Among these, the Nipah virus has gained significant attention due to its potential for outbreaks with high mortality rates. Nipah virus infection is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. In this blog, we will delve into the symptoms of Nipah virus infection in humans, its risk factors, and preventive measures.

What is Jaundice?

Before we delve into the specifics of black jaundice and yellow jaundice, let’s first understand the common underlying causes and symptoms of jaundice. Jaundice occurs when there is an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed during the breakdown of haemoglobin in old red blood cells. In a healthy body, bilirubin is processed by the liver, which converts it into a water-soluble form that can be excreted through bile and urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or there is an excess production of bilirubin, it can lead to the yellowing of the skin and eyes.

What is Black Jaundice?

Acute liver failure, often known as black jaundice, is a serious medical illness marked by a fast decline in liver function. The term “black jaundice” refers to the more severe form of the disease, whereas “jaundice” often refers to the yellowing of the skin and eyes as a result of elevated bilirubin levels. It necessitates quick medical intervention and care.

A type of jaundice known as Heidan illness (black jaundice) is brought on by persistent and chronic jaundice, frequently accompanied by blood stasis, damp-heat, etc. In Western medicine, the clinical signs of Heldan illness (black jaundice) are comparable to those of cirrhosis, which is brought on by a number of chronic liver conditions. The pathophysiology of Heidan disease (black jaundice), which is typically of the yin jaundice type, is primarily related to blood stasis and dampness stagnation, frequently with damp-heat residue.

What are the symptoms of Black Jaundice?

Jaundice itself is a symptom of an underlying medical issue rather than a standalone condition. The primary symptom of jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and the white part of the eyes (sclera), which occurs due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the body. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that forms when red blood cells break down.

However, there are some specific symptoms associated with black Jaundice such as follows:

  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Abdominal pain and discomfort
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Confusion or altered mental state
  • Dark urine and pale stools
  • Swelling in the abdomen and legs

Conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, gallstones, hemolytic anaemia, and more can lead to jaundice. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of jaundice, it’s important to seek medical attention for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

What are the Causes and Risk Factors Associated with Black Jaundice?

The following are the causes of Black Jaundice:

  • Viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis A, B, or C)
  • Drug-induced liver injury
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Wilson’s disease (copper accumulation)
  • Hemochromatosis (iron overload)
  • Infections (like Epstein-Barr virus)
  • Herbal and dietary supplements

It can be more likely to occur if certain risk factors are present, such as a history of liver illness, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain genetic disorders.

Diagnosis of Black Jaundice

The diagnosis of Black Jaundice can involve a measure of steps such as:
  • Assessment and review of preceding medical history
  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Ultrasound & MRI
  • occasionally liver biopsy

Determining the best course of treatment depends on a timely and accurate diagnosis.

Treatment of Black Jaundice

Medical Attention

Black jaundice episodes require immediate medical care. To handle difficulties and keep the patient stable, hospitalization could be required. Treatment options may include corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, or other particular medicines, depending on the underlying reason.

Lifestyle Changes

Black jaundice patients frequently need to make considerable lifestyle adjustments. This can involve avoiding alcohol, maintaining a healthy weight, and rigorously adhering to medical advice.

Dietary changes

A balanced diet is crucial for supporting liver health. Try to include the following food in your diet:
  • High-fiber foods – fruits, vegetables, whole grains
  • Lean protein sources – chicken, fish, legumes
  • Healthy fats – avocado, nuts, olive oil

Try to avoid the following:

  • Fried and processed foods
  • Excessive salt and sugar
  • Alcohol and high-sugar beverages

What is Yellow Jaundice?

Yellow jaundice, also known as icterus or hyperbilirubinemia, is the most common form of jaundice. It is characterized by the classic yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes. Yellow jaundice can be caused by various factors:

Liver Diseases –

Conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer can impair the liver’s ability to process bilirubin, leading to its accumulation in the bloodstream.

Excessive Hemolysis

Increased breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) can overwhelm the liver’s capacity to process bilirubin, leading to its elevation in the blood.

Biliary Obstruction

Blockages in the bile ducts, whether due to gallstones or tumors, can prevent the proper flow of bile and bilirubin, resulting in jaundice.


In conclusion, while yellow jaundice is a well-recognized medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin and eyes due to elevated bilirubin levels, black jaundice, or acute liver failure, is a severe condition that demands immediate attention. A medical professional should thoroughly evaluate any discoloration of the skin that appears black, as it could be a call for serious medical treatment.

Black jaundice’s symptoms must be identified, medical attention must be sought promptly, and essential lifestyle adjustments must be made for a successful course of therapy and recovery.

Remember, accurate medical information is crucial for making informed decisions about your health. Always consult reliable sources and healthcare professionals for accurate information and guidance.


What are the Symptoms of Nipah Virus Infection in Humans?

In recent years, emerging infectious diseases have become a global concern. Among these, the Nipah virus has gained significant attention due to its potential for outbreaks with high mortality rates. Nipah virus infection is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. In this blog, we will delve into the symptoms of Nipah virus infection in humans, its risk factors, and preventive measures.

What is the Nipah Virus?

A zoonotic virus, the Nipah virus (NiV) transmits from animals to humans. It can also spread through pigs and other animals including goats, horses, dogs, or cats. It is mainly spread by fruit bats, often known as flying foxes. The virus multiplies in the following conditions: 

  • The bodily fluids (blood, excrement, pee, or saliva) of an infected animal come into touch with people or other animals.
  • Foods contaminated by an infected animal are consumed by people.
  • People frequently come into contact with a person who is infected with the Nipah virus while providing care for them.

The Nipah virus was first identified in Malaysia in 1999 during an outbreak that primarily affected pigs and subsequently led to human infections. Since then, Nipah virus outbreaks have been reported in various countries, including Bangladesh, India, and several others in Southeast Asia. Fruit bats, specifically the Pteropus genus, are the natural hosts of this virus.

How Does Nipah Virus Spread?

Humans and animals are the main carriers of the virus. However, it can also pass from one person to another. Caretakers should therefore wear protective gear when administering treatment to someone who has the nipah virus.

The Nipah virus spreads easily. Blood, excrement, urine, and body fluids like saliva can all spread the disease. This means that if you are taking care of someone who has the Nipah virus, you could contract it from their cough or sneeze.

What are the Symptoms of Nipah Virus?

Nipah virus infection can manifest with a range of symptoms, which can make it challenging to diagnose early. The incubation period for the virus is typically between 4 to 14 days, meaning symptoms can appear within this time frame after exposure to the virus. Here are the primary symptoms associated with Nipah virus infection:

  • Fever: The initial symptom is often a high fever, accompanied by flu-like symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, and body aches.
  • Headache: Severe headaches are common in Nipah virus-infected individuals, often making it difficult for them to concentrate or go about their daily activities.
  • Respiratory Distress: As the infection progresses, individuals may experience respiratory distress, including coughing and difficulty breathing.
  • Encephalitis: The Nipah virus is known for its ability to cause encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain. This can lead to confusion, disorientation, and seizures.
  • Coma: In severe cases, Nipah virus infection can progress rapidly, leading to a coma within a matter of days.
  • Nervous System Involvement: The virus can also affect the nervous system, leading to symptoms such as neck rigidity and muscle tremors.
  • Vomiting and Diarrhea: Gastrointestinal symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea can occur, which can contribute to dehydration and weakness.

What Preventive Measures Can You Take?

Preventing Nipah virus infection primarily involves minimizing exposure to the virus. Here are some essential preventive measures:

Avoid Contact with Infected Animals

Stay away from sick animals, especially pigs and bats, in areas with known Nipah virus outbreaks. Farmers and those working with animals should use protective gear.

Practice Good Hygiene

Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, especially after handling animals or their products. Hand sanitizers can be used when soap and water are not available.

Isolation and Quarantine

Isolate individuals suspected of Nipah virus infection and follow proper infection control practices, especially in healthcare settings.

Educate and Raise Awareness

Communities in at-risk areas should be educated about the virus and its transmission, along with the importance of reporting sick animals and individuals.


Nipah virus infection is a potentially deadly zoonotic disease with a range of symptoms that can make early diagnosis challenging. Understanding the symptoms and risk factors associated with Nipah virus infection is essential for both individuals and healthcare professionals. Preventive measures, such as avoiding contact with infected animals and practicing good hygiene, are key to reducing the risk of transmission. Additionally, ongoing research and public health efforts are vital in the fight against this emerging infectious disease, ensuring a safer future for all.

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